Grammatical Variation of Pronouns in Nineteenth-Century English Novels Masami Nakayama(中山匡美著) ひつじ書房 Grammatical Variation of Pronouns in Nineteenth-Century English Novels Masami Nakayama(中山匡美著) ひつじ書房

Hituzi Linguistics in English No.26

Grammatical Variation of Pronouns in Nineteenth-Century English Novels

Masami Nakayama(中山匡美著)

菊判上製カバー装 272頁 定価12000円+税

ISBN 978-4-89476-901-4

ブックデザイン 白井敬尚形成事務所


This book is a quantitative and qualitative sociohistorical study focusing on the grammatical variation of the pronoun in nineteenth-century English novels. The nineteenth century is regarded as the period of the novel’s full arrival for its richness in publication. With a variety of perspectives—such as historical, morphological, phonological, stylistic, sociolinguistic, pragmatic and regional—the book reveals which linguistic factors are involved in the language usages of the characters in the novels as well as of the authors who created them. The book also considers how a prominent upsurge of normative grammar influenced the change of English language throughout the century.


Preface and acknowledgements

List of tables and figures

chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Aim and scope
1.2 Previous studies
1.3 Methodological framework
1.3.1 Corpus
1.3.2 Grammar books
1.3.3 Multifaceted approach Sociolinguistic analysis Stylistic analysis Regional parameters Outline of the study

chapter 2 Dialectal Variation of Personal Pronouns

2.1 Second person 
2.1.1 Thou Overview Data “Power” as a key to the use of THOU “Emotion” which triggers THOU Summary 
2.1.2 Ye Overview Data Complex behavior of ye Distribution of two types of ye and how to tell the difference Summary 
2.2 Third person 
2.2.1 Third person singular Nonstandard forms for he Nonstandard forms for she Nonstandard forms for it Summary 
2.2.2 Third person plural ’em for them Overview Data Sociolinguistic analysis Syntactic and phonological analyses Summary 
2.3 Reflexive pronouns 
2.3.1 Overview 
2.3.2 Data and observation The –sel’ type The –seln/–sen type The hisself type and others 
2.3.3 Summary 

chapter 3 Case Problems of Personal Pronouns

3.1 It is I vs. It is me 
3.1.1 Overview 
3.1.2 Data 
3.1.3 Analysis 
3.1.4 I! vs. Me! Data Analysis 
3.1.5 Summary 
3.2 Than I vs. than me 
3.2.1 Overview 
3.2.2 Younger than I vs. younger than me 
3.2.3 Than myself 
3.2.4 Summary 
3.3 As I vs. as me 
3.3.1 Overview 
3.3.2 As tall as I vs. as tall as me 
3.3.3 Such as he vs. such as him 
3.3.4 As myself 
3.3.5 Summary 
3.4 But, except, save 
3.4.1 Overview 
3.4.2 Data and analysis 
3.4.3 Summary 
3.5 You and I vs. you and me 
3.5.1 Overview 
3.5.2 Nominative position 
3.5.3 Between you and me 
3.5.4 Summary 
3.6 Overall Summary 

chapter 4 The Nonstandard Usage of Demonstrative Pronouns

4.1 Them books for those books 
4.1.1 Overview 
4.1.2 Data and analysis 
4.2 Them that for those that 
4.2.1 Overview 
4.2.2 Data and analysis 
4.3 Summary 

chapter 5 The Rivalry between Relative Pronoun Variants

5.1 Whom vs. who 
5.1.1 Overview 
5.1.2 Interrogative and relative pronouns Interrogative whom/who Relative whom/who 
5.1.3 Summary 
5.2 Of which vs. whose 
5.2.1 Overview 
5.2.2 Genitive whose and its alternative variants 
5.2.3 Of which vs. whose for non-personal antecedents Chronological and sociolinguistic analyses Spoken and written Types of antecedents Syntactic factors 
5.2.4 Summary 

chapter 6 Concord with Indefinite Pronouns

6.1 Pronoun-verb concord 
6.1.1 Overview 
6.1.2 The everybody type 
6.1.3 The every man type 
6.1.4 Spoken and written 
6.2 Pronominal co-reference 
6.2.1 Overview 
6.2.2 The everybody type 
6.2.3 The every man type 
6.2.4 Spoken and written 
6.2.5 Sociolinguistic analysis The everybody type The every man type 
6.3 Discrepancy in number 
6.4 Summary 

chapter 7 Conclusion

7.1 Linguistic factors involved in the choice of pronominal variants 
7.2 Influence of prescriptive grammar 
7.2.1 Archaic/dialectal use 
7.2.2 Casual use 
7.2.3 Solecism criticized by grammarians 
7.3 How the grammatical change in pronouns proceeded in the th century 
7.4 Further investigation 




【著者紹介】 中山匡美(なかやま まさみ)

Masami Nakayama was born in Oita, Japan. She received a Ph.D. degree from the University of Tokyo. Masami is currently an adjunct lecturer in the University of Tokyo and Kanagawa University.

Main academic articles:
・“Multiple Negation in Nineteenth-Century English; As Seen in Victorian Novels.” Studies in Modern English 23.(2007)
・“Linguistic Rivalry between Three Forms of Negation: A Sociohistorical Study of English in Nineteenth-Century Novels.” Studies in English Literature: English Number 52.(2011)
・“The Complex Behavior of the Second Person Pronoun Ye in 19th-Century English Novels.” Studies in English Literature: English Number 55.(2014)