Lexical Pragmatics: Teaching English Communication and Pragmatic Skills to Japanese Learners Akihiko Kawamura(川村晶彦著) ひつじ書房 Lexical Pragmatics: Teaching English Communication and Pragmatic Skills to Japanese Learners Akihiko Kawamura(川村晶彦著) ひつじ書房

Hituzi Linguistics in English No.28

Lexical Pragmatics: Teaching English Communication and Pragmatic Skills to Japanese Learners

Akihiko Kawamura(川村晶彦著)

菊判上製カバー装 316頁 定価11000円+税

ISBN 978-4-89476-903-8

ブックデザイン 白井敬尚形成事務所




List of Figures, Graphs and Tables
List of Abbreviations and Acronyms

PART I Pragmatic Information


CHAPTER I Introduction

1.1 Lexical pragmatics
1.2 Outline

CHAPTER II Defining Pragmatics

2.1 Overview
2.2 Key concepts
2.2.1 The function of language
2.2.2 The user of language
2.2.3 Context
2.2.4 Appropriateness
2.2.5 Compromise
2.3 Related fields and objects of investigation
2.3.1 Pragmatics and semantics
2.3.2 Hearer meaning
2.3.3 Pragmatics and sociolinguistics
2.4 Constituents of pragmatics and their relationships with other levels of language
2.4.1 Linguistic resources
2.4.2 A command of linguistic resources
2.4.3 Pragmatics, a definition

CHAPTER III Defining Pragmatic Information for EFL Dictionaries

3.1 Types of meaning
3.1.1 Pragmatic meaning, a definition
3.1.2 Dictionary meaning, a definition 
3.1.3 The difference between pragmatic meaning and dictionary meaning
3.2 Existing definition of pragmatic information for EFL dictionaries
3.2.1 Dictionaries and glossaries
3.2.2 Confusion over pragmatic information for EFL dictionaries
3.3 Restricting the coverage from a lexicographic perspective
3.3.1 Discourse and pragmatic functions
3.3.2 Pragmatic biases
3.3.3 Paralinguistic features
3.3.4 Criteria for deciding what pragmatic information to include
3.3.5 Issues for pragmatics in the EFL context
3.3.6 Descriptive versus prescriptive
3.3.7 Pragmatic information, a definition

PART II Lexical Approach to Pragmatic Failures


CHAPTER IV Data Collection

4.1 Existing sources of pragmatic information for learners
4.1.1 Dictionaries
4.1.2 Corpora
4.1.3 Academic research
4.1.4 Non-academic literature
4.2 The research project
4.2.1 Overview Questionnaires vs. spoken data Selection of topics Parallel questionnaires Demographics of the informants Question formats Limitations Selection of data

CHAPTER V Causes of Pragmatic Failures and Case Studies

5.1 Classification and distribution of potential causes
5.2 Case studies
5.2.1 Identification
5.2.2 Direct expression
5.2.3 Wrong choice
5.2.4 Style and register
5.2.5 Pragmatic transfer
5.2.6 Teaching
5.2.7 Others
5.3 Summary

CHAPTER VI Issues Arising from Analysing the Data

6.1 Risky topics
6.2 Differences between British and American Englishes
6.3 Quantitative and qualitative data
6.3.1 Case study 1: Could you...? as used when inviting others
6.3.2 Case study 2: Will as used to talk about others’ future plan
6.3.3 Case study 3: Whether one needs permission to help
6.3.4 Case study 4: Order of different person subjects
6.4 Summary and implications for Part III

PART III Compatibility Between Pragmatics and Lexicography with Particular Reference to Politeness


CHAPTER VII Politeness and EFL Lexicography

7.1 Pragmatic failures revisited in terms of politeness
7.2 The state of the art—how politeness is treated in latest EFL dictionaries
7.3 Units of description and foci
7.4 Contextual information

CHAPTER VIII Compatibility Between Pragmatics and Lexicography

8.1 Overview
8.2 Dictionaries’ claims concerning their treatments of pragmatics
8.2.1 The coverage
8.2.2 Overlapping categories
8.2.3 Inconsistencies
8.3 Traditional topics in pragmatics and their compatibilities with lexicography
8.3.1 Implicature
8.3.2 Deixis
8.3.3 Speech acts
8.3.4 Politeness
8.4 Approaches to language function
8.4.1 Lexical phrases
8.4.2 Text functions
8.5 Reaching a compromise between pragmatics and lexicography

CHAPTER IX Politeness

9.1 Linguistic politeness
9.2 Theories of politeness
9.2.1 Overview
9.2.2 Brown and Levinson’s face theory Face theory Limitations of face theory
9.2.3 Spencer-Oatey’s rapport management Rapport management I don’t suppose revisited in terms of rapport management
9.3 Theories on politeness and their implications for EFL
9.3.1 Identifying formulae, speech act markers and politeness
markers as embedded in utterances
9.3.2 Speech events and activity types
9.3.3 Speech acts and other domains of politeness
9.3.4 Ethos and communication style
9.3.5 Pragmatic conventions
9.3.6 Sociological variables
9.3.7 Deference, register and absolute politeness
9.3.8 The influence of translation equivalents
9.4 Summary

CHAPTER X Methodology

10.1 Procedures
10.1.1 Selection of dictionaries
10.1.2 Selection of research items
10.1.3 Classification of the 76 lexical items according to their functions
10.1.4 Lemmatisation
10.2 Key issues when examining the treatment of politeness in lexicography

CHAPTER XI Politeness as Described in Monolingual Dictionaries

11.1 Explanations
11.1.1 Polite in monolingual dictionaries
11.1.2 The absence of a perspective on politeness and speech acts
11.1.3 Typical uses of a lexical item
11.1.4 Sense description from the perspective of speech act
11.1.5 Speech act as a series of actions
11.1.6 Summary of 11.1
11.2 Speech labels
11.2.1 List of labels
11.2.2 The use of labels Absence of necessary labels Confusions over the use of labels Summary of 11.2
11.3 Illustrative examples
11.3.1 Lack of context
11.3.2 Mismatched examples
11.3.3 Difficult examples
11.3.4 Multi-lexical realisation of politeness
11.3.5 Register
11.3.6 Collocation and speech acts
11.3.7 Summary of 11.3
11.4 Other issues
11.4.1 Accompanying functions
11.4.2 Identification of distinct senses of lexical items
11.4.3 Confusions over speech acts
11.4.4 Usage notes
11.4.5 Summary of 11.4

CHAPTER XII Politeness as Described in Bilingual Dictionaries

12.1 Issues common to monolingual and bilingual dictionaries
12.1.1 Teinei in bilingual dictionaries
12.2 Translation equivalents
12.2.1 Complements to translations
12.2.2 Attempts at reducing misunderstanding by translations
12.2.3 Inconsistencies caused by translations
12.2.4 Summary of 12.2
12.3 Usage notes
12.3.1 Monolingual versus bilingual dictionaries
12.3.2 Types of usage note
12.3.3 Criteria for utilising usage notes
12.3.4 Accessibility to usage notes
12.3.5 Reliability of usage notes
12.3.6 Summary of 12.3
12.4 Other issues
12.4.1 Request and getting permission
12.4.2 The necessity of explaining different politeness strategies in Japanese and English
12.4.3 Biases towards negative politeness
12.4.4 Summary of 12.4
12.5 Dictionaries as tools for learning pragmatics (Closing remarks to Chapters XI and XII)

CHAPTER XIII Recommendations to Dictionary Makers

13.1 Approach pragmatics from the functional perspective
13.1.1 Speech acts and politeness
13.1.2 Accompanying functions
13.1.3 Polite and teinei
13.1.4 Explanations in Japanese
13.2 Review all the descriptions from the educational perspective
13.3 Cooperate with non-lexicographic resources
13.4 Make the best use of the latest technologies
xiv 13.5 Pay attention to differences between pragmatic conventions in learners’ native language and English, with help from a team of Japanese and English-speaking lexicographers
13.6 Worked examples

CHAPTER XIV Conclusion

14.1 Summary and overview
14.2 Compatibility between pragmatics and lexicography
14.2.1 Differences between pragmatics and lexicography, revisited
14.2.2 Making compromises Narrowing the scope of pragmatics with the functional perspective Filling the role of dictionaries as a learning material
14.3 Users with specific linguistic and/or cultural backgrounds
14.4 Closing remarks: Limitations of the study and implications for the future

Appendix I Cover letter and instructions for EV
Appendix II Questions and the summaries of the results excluding statistically insignificant ones
Appendix III Text functions
Appendix IV Research items



【著者紹介】 川村晶彦(かわむら あきひこ)
成城大学社会イノベーション学部心理社会学科教授(異文化間コミュニケーション論および英語担当)。ロータリー財団国際親善奨学生として英国エクセター大学大学院留学(1999〜2000年、MA in Lexicography)。2014年、英国バーミンガム大学大学院博士課程修了(PhD in Applied Linguistics)。
‘Problems in Incorporating Pragmatics into EFL Lexicography’ in: the JACET Society of English Lexicography ed., English Lexicography in Japan, Taishukan Shoten (2006)、‘Issues in Collecting Data for Better Treatment of Pragmatics in Language Teaching: A Case Study of the Planet Board Project in Lexical Pragmatics’ in: Random 33 (2011).

Akihiko Kawamura is a Professor of Intercultural Communication and English in the Department of Psychological and Sociological Studies, Faculty of Social Innovation, Seijo University, Japan. He studied at the University of Exeter, UK, as a scholarship student of Rotary International (1999-2000), and gained an MA in Lexicography. In 2014, he obtained a PhD in Applied Linguistics from the University of Birmingham, UK.

Main academic articles:
・‘Problems in Incorporating Pragmatics into EFL Lexicography’ in: the JACET Society of English Lexicography ed., English Lexicography in Japan, Taishukan Shoten (2006).
・‘Issues in Collecting Data for Better Treatment of Pragmatics in Language Teaching: A Case Study of the Planet Board Project in Lexical Pragmatics’ in: Random 33 (2011).
Professor Kawamura has also taken part in several dictionary projects in the UK and Japan, including O-Lex English-Japanese Dictionary, 2nd ed., Obunsha (2013).